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Defining Enterprise Architecture
Economics and the Role of I.T.

by John A. Zachman

So, why is it that an Enterprise needs Information Technology people in their Enterprise in the Information Age?

When I happen to be talking to some I.T. folks and I raise the question "Why does the Enterprise need Information Technology people in their Enterprise in the Information Age?" I usually warn them at this point that I haven't had an hour and a half or so to soften them up and I am going to make a radical comment... so don't fall off their chairs when I say this but...
"If you think the Enterprise sends you a paycheck every couple of weeks or so because you are building and running systems, I have some friendly advice for you... there is a cloud in your future!  It (I.T.) is going outboard!"

I spoke at a conference in Orlando several years ago, and Nicholas Carr was talking at the same conference.  You might recognize his name.  He is a Harvard Business School professor that wrote that article in Harvard Business Review, "I.T. Doesn't Matter," making all of the I.T. folks really upset.  He was talking at this rather large I.T. conference and he was proving one more time that "I.T. Doesn't Matter"... and he had a LOT of data to prove it.  And, the data he was using was economic data.

Basically, what he was saying is, it doesn't make any economic sense to have your own internal I.T. community to build your systems for you and it doesn't make any economic sense to have your own internal I.T. infrastructure to run your systems either.  When he wrote the original HBR article about 12 years ago he was talking about building the systems.  At this conference, he was talking about the "Cloud" running the systems.  And, he has written several books on the subject in the intervening years.

The conference was made up largely of technology management folks as well as quite a few academic folks and he was still making many people upset.  However, I think Nicholas Carr is right!  The economics legislate:  I.T. is going outboard.

However, I have been in the I.T. domain for about 50 years so I am not naive about it.  You can't just put your brain in neutral and outsource everything and expect everybody to live happily ever after!

If you are going to outsource the building of your systems to someone else, you'd better have the ability to articulate precisely what you have in mind for them to build for you or else you are going to get back from them whatever they build... which is not too dissimilar from what Management is presently getting from their internal I.T. community.

I spoke to a military strategy group several years ago and there was a security expert who was billed as the foremost security expert the world has ever seen... and, I was impressed... he fit that billing!!  He was making the case that the security problems we have experienced up until that time have been typically from college kids who didn't have anything else to do but prove they were smarter than you by breaking into your systems.  However, from now on, the problems will be coming from organized crime... people who either want to steal your money or destroy your Enterprise, and the proven device they will use is subterfuge.  Then he said... "How do you feel about your software being built by your mortal enemies?"  Gulp!  My observation is, if you are going to outsource building your systems, you'd better have the technical ability to define precisely what it is you want to have built and then the ability to examine what you get back to make sure that what you got back is what you ordered.

In terms of outsourcing the running of your systems to a Cloud... it is my understanding from a very credible academic friend that 80% of the intellectual property of the United States has already been compromised.  If you put something out on a Cloud someplace, you are saying, "Okay you guys, here's the other 20%!"  You are just making it easier.  I am not saying "Don't do it."  I am just saying that if you are going to put something out on a "cloud," you'd better understand what you are doing.  Maybe the network security on the Cloud is better than the network security you can provide for yourself... and I am sure the security in general is going to get better.  However, nonetheless, you'd better think it through and know what you are doing.

Role of I.T.

Yes, I think Nicholas Carr is right... the economics legislate that I.T. is going outboard.  However, all the management responsibilities don't go away... you still have all the scheduling, budgeting the project management, etc., in addition to defining, validating, and securing.

In any case, assuming for a moment the bulk of I.T. is going outboard, why would an Enterprise need I.T. people in the Information Age?  That is, what do I.T. people bring to the table to an Enterprise in the Information Age?

I submit, I.T. people bring to the table the drafting skills... the drafting skills!  They know how to describe things.  They know how to build models.  This is non-trivial!  You send a mechanical engineer to a university... not to trade school... to a university for four years to learn how to do drafting... to learn how to describe things so every other mechanical engineer in the universe can understand precisely what it is they are describing.

Is this an important idea?

This is a REALLY important idea.  If you have more than one mechanical engineer working on that Boeing 747 (or hundred story building, or super computer, or locomotive, or semi truck and trailer, etc.) they all have to be reading off of the same page.  If they are not reading off of the same page, you are not going to get a Boeing 747 or whatever it is you are building.

If you want the mechanical engineer to actually design something... that is two more years at the university... graduate school, a master's degree.  They have to specialize... there will be mechanical engineers, aeronautical engineers, hydraulic engineers, pneumatic engineers, metallurgical engineers, electrical engineers, a bunch of engineers... because one engineer doesn't know everything.  One engineer doesn't engineer the entire Boeing 747.

I submit, Enterprises are FAR more complex than Boeing 747s, hundred story buildings, or whatever other complex object you can conceive of.  And, the Enterprise doesn't have to be all that big to be extremely complex!  It is not realistic to expect one Enterprise Architect to engineer the entire Enterprise.  There is a LOT of room for specialization.  We don't see much specialization in Enterprise Architecture today but before we get done I will be able to speculate about the different engineering skills that are likely required for engineering Enterprises.

Back to the mechanical engineers... if you want the mechanical engineer to engineer something you don't mind flying on at night over water... that is about 25 years of apprenticeship because you can actually design things that don't work!  How do you learn what works and what doesn't work?  You don't learn that in school.  You learn that on the job.  You have to live long enough and fail often enough to learn what works and what doesn't work.  "Hey!!  Don't design it that way because we already know that is not going to work!"

You don't find people fresh out of universities with a bachelor's degree in Information Systems or Information Technology or Computer Science or anything else, for that matter, interested in Enterprise Architecture!  They still think the solution to the world's problems lies in Visual Basic... or Agile Programming... or the Cloud!  I am not saying there is anything wrong with Visual Basic or Agile Programming or any other programming language or methodology for that matter, or with the Cloud.  But... I am saying "You have to live long enough and fail enough to figure out that writing a few more lines of code is not going to fix the Enterprise's problems."

So, why does an Enterprise need Information people in their Enterprise in the Information Age?  They bring to the table the skills required to create the engineering design artifacts required to actually engineer the Enterprise!

This article can also be viewed on John's blog — presented here, with permission.

standard citation for this article:
John A. Zachman, "Defining Enterprise Architecture:  Economics and the Role of I.T.," Business Rules Journal, Vol. 16, No. 12 (Dec. 2015), URL:  

January 2017
By John A. Zachman

October 2016
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July 2016
The New EA Paradigm
(4) The Assemble-to-Order Pattern

By John A. Zachman

June 2016
The New EA Paradigm
(3) The Provide-from-Stock Pattern

By John A. Zachman

May 2016
The New EA Paradigm
(2) The Make-to-Order Pattern

By John A. Zachman

April 2016
The New EA Paradigm
(1) Expenses and Assets

By John A. Zachman

March 2016
The Information Age: (3) Powershift
By John A. Zachman

February 2016
The Information Age: (2) The Third Wave
By John A. Zachman

January 2016
The Information Age: (1) Future Shock
By John A. Zachman

December 2015
Defining Enterprise Architecture: Economics and the Role of I.T.
By John A. Zachman

November 2015
Enterprise Physics 101
By John A. Zachman

September 2015
A Historical Look at Enterprise Architecture with John Zachman
By John A. Zachman

August 2015
Cloud Computing and Enterprise Architecture
By John A. Zachman

June 2015
The Zachman Framework Evolution (Part 2)
Special Guest: John P. Zachman

May 2015
The Zachman Framework Evolution (Part 1)
Special Guest: John P. Zachman

April 2015
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By John A. Zachman

April 2013
John Zachman's Concise Definition of The Zachman Framework
By John A. Zachman

November 2004
The Zachman Framework and Observations on Methodologies


November 2003

Framework Fundamentals: Frameworks, Reference Models, and Matrices


August 2003

Framework Fundamentals: A Dialog With John Zachman


June 2003

Framework Fundamentals: Miscellaneous Enterprise Engineering Concepts


April 2003

Framework Fundamentals: Framework Fundamentals: Level of Detail is a Function of a CELL


February 2003

Framework Fundamentals: Responding to Questions from the OMG


May 2002

Enterprise Quantum Mechanics (Part 2)


March 2002

Enterprise Quantum Mechanics (Part 1)


January 2002

"What" Versus "What"


November 2001

Security And The "Zachman Framework"


September 2001

Fatal Distractions (Part 2)


July 2001

Fatal Distractions (Part 1)


May 2001

You Can't "Cost-Justify" Architecture


March 2001

Conceptual, Logical, Physical: It Is Simple (Part 2 of 2)


January 2001

Conceptual, Logical, Physical: It Is Simple (Part 1 of 2)


September 2000

Building The Enterprise - An Infusion Of Honesty


July 2000

All the Reasons Why You Can't Do Architecture or ("We Has Met the Enemy and He Is Us")


May 2000

Enterprise Architecture Artifacts vs Application Development Artifacts (Part 2)


March 2000

Enterprise Architecture Artifacts vs Application Development Artifacts (Part 1)


November/December 1999 & January/February 2000

Enterprise Architecture: Issues, Ingibitors, and Incentives

July/August & September/October 1999

Packages Don't Let You Off The Hook

By John A. Zachman

January/February & March/April 1999

Life Is a Series of Trade-Offs and Change Is Accelerating!

November/December 1998

"Yes Virginia, There IS an Enterprise Architecture"

July/August 1998

Enterprise Architecture: Looking Back and Looking Ahead

January/February 1998

The Framework for Enterprise Architecture (The 'Zachman Framework') and the Search for the Owner's View of Business Rules



 about . . .



John A. Zachman is the originator of the “Framework for Enterprise Architecture” (The Zachman Framework™) which has received broad acceptance around the world as an integrative framework, an ontology for descriptive representations for Enterprises. Mr. Zachman is not only known for this work on Enterprise Architecture, but is also known for his early contributions to IBM’s Information Strategy methodology (Business Systems Planning) as well as to their Executive team planning techniques (Intensive Planning).

Mr. Zachman retired from IBM in 1990, having served them for 26 years. He is Chief Executive Officer of his own education and consulting business, Zachman International®.

Mr. Zachman serves on the Executive Council for Information Management and Technology (ECIMT) of the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) and on the Advisory Board of the Data Administration Management Association International (DAMA-I) from whom he was awarded the 2002 Lifetime Achievement Award. He was awarded the 2009 Enterprise Architecture Professional Lifetime Achievement Award from the Center for Advancement of the Enterprise Architecture Profession as well as the 2004 Oakland University, Applied Technology in Business (ATIB), Award for IS Excellence and Innovation.  In August 2011,  he was awarded the Gen. Colin Powell Public Sector Image Award by the Armed Services Alliance Program.

Mr. Zachman has been focusing on Enterprise Architecture since 1970 and has written extensively on the subject. He has facilitated innumerable executive team planning sessions. He travels nationally and internationally, teaching and consulting, and is a popular conference speaker, known for his motivating messages on Enterprise Architecture issues. He has spoken to many thousands of enterprise managers and information professionals on every continent.

In addition to his professional activities, Mr. Zachman serves on the Elder Council of the Church on the Way (First Foursquare Church of Van Nuys, California), the Board of Directors of Living Way Ministries, a radio and television ministry of the Church on the Way, the President’s Cabinet of the King’s College University, the Board of Directors of the Los Angeles Citywide Children’s Christian Choir, the Board of Directors of Heavenworks, an international ministry to the French-speaking world and on the Board of Directors of Native Hope International, a Los Angeles-based ministry to the Native American people.

Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Zachman served as a line officer in the United States Navy and is a retired Commander in the U. S. Naval Reserve. He chaired a panel on "Planning, Development and Maintenance Tools and Methods Integration"  for the U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. He holds a degree in Chemistry from Northwestern University, has taught at Tufts University, has served on the Board of Councilors for the School of Library and Information Management at the University of Southern California, as a Special Advisor to the School of Library and Information Managementat Emporia State University, on the Advisory Council to the School of Library and Information Managementat Dominican University and on the Advisory Board for the Data Resource Management Programat the University of Washington. He has been a Fellow for the College of Business Administration of the University of North Texas and currently is listed in Cambridge Who’s Who.




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